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Chinese Mandarin Preliminary Course Exercises

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B J Burford 2003-2007

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Chinese Mandarin Prreliminary Course
using Pinyin


1. t 2. w 3. n 4. qng. 5. xixie! 6. ptnghu. 7. n 8. t 9. hunyng!



1. he, she, it 2. I 3. You 4. Please 5. Thanks! 6. Mandarin 7. You 8. he, she, it 9. Welcome!



1. w ho. 2. wmen ho. 3. tmen ho. 4. n ho? 5. t ho. 6. nmen ho.



1. I['m] well. 2. We [are] O.K. 3. They are good. 4. You [are] well? 5. He/she/it [is] good. 6. YOU [are] well.



1. n ho ma? 2. tmen ho ma? 3. w ho ma? 4. nmen ho ma? 5. t ho ma? 6. wmen ho ma?



1. How are you? (You [are] well, eh?) 2. Are they good? 3. Am I alright? 4. How are YOU? 5. Is it good? (or Is he/she O.K.?) 6. How are we?



1. t hn ho. 2. nmen b ho. 3. t b ho. 4. wmen hn ho. 5. tmen b ho. 6. n hn ho.



1. He is indeed/very well. or It's quite O.K. 2. YOU are not well. 3. He/she is not good/well. 4. We are very well. 5. They are not good/well. 6. You are very/certainly well.



1. w sh Fred. 2. t sh Bill. 3. n rnshi Bill. 4. tmen rnshi Jack ma? 5. wmen rnshi Jack. 6. tmen b rnshi Jack. 7. w b sh Bill. 8. t kn. 9. n b kn. 10. w b kn t. 11. qng kn t.



1. I am Fred. 2. He is Bill. 3. You know Bill. 4. They know Jack, do they? 5. We know Jack. 6. They do not know Jack. 7. I am not Bill. 8. He reads. 9. You don't read. 10. I do not read it. 11. Please read it.



1. n sh yge ho pngyou. 2. t b ho. 3. t b sh yge ho pngyou. 4. w sh yge ho pngyou ma? 5. nmen sh [hn] ho [de] pngyou.* 6. tmen sh pngyou ma? 7. t sh yge ho xnx. (See also another measure word in Study 24 for flat, rectangular things like a written message: ‘zhng’; hence ‘yzhng xnx’.)


* Note: Remember that with all except the simplest of adjectives (which are written with one Chinese character) you should insert ‘de’. Hence, use ‘ho pngyou’, but use ‘de’ in ‘hn ho de pngyou’ and ‘b ho de pngyou’.




1. You are a good friend. 2. He is not good. 3. He is not a good friend. 4. Am I a good friend? 5. YOU are [very] good friends.* 6. Are they friends? 7. It is a good message.



1. w sh nge rn. 2. n rnshi zhge pngyou. 3. nge rn sh yge ho pngyou. 4. zh b sh yge pngyou. 5. zhge pngyou sh [hn] ho [de] rn. 6. n sh yge ho pngyou ma? 7. t rnshi nge rn. 8. nge dngxi sh ho. 9. zhge dngxi sh b ho. 10. nge xnx sh yge ho dngxi. 11. qng kn zhge xnx. 12. zhge pngyou kn nge xnx.



1. I am that person. 2. You know this friend. 3. That person is a good friend. 4. This is not a friend. 5. This friend is a [very] good person. 6. That is a very good friend, eh? 7. He/she knows that person. 8. That thing is good. 9. This thing is not good. 10. That message is a good thing. 11. Please read this message. 12. This friend reads that message.



1. zhxi rn sh ho pngyou. 2. tmen sh nxi rn. 3. nxi [rn] rnsh Jim. 4. wmen rnshi zhxi rn. 5. nmen rnshi nxi ma? 6. nmen kn nxi xnx. 10. qng kn zhxi xnx.



1. These men are good friends. 2. They are those persons. 3. Those [persons] know Jim. 4. We know these people. 5. Do YOU know those? 6. YOU read those messages. 10 Please read these messages.



1. w rnshi nde pngyou. 2. zh sh wde pngyou. 3. nxi rn b sh tmende pngyou. 4. nde pngyou ho ma? 5. tde pngyou b ho. 6. qng kn wde ho xnx.



1. I know your friend. 2. That is my friend. 3. Those people are not their friends. 4. Is your friend well. 5. His/her friend is not well. 6. Please read my nice message.



1. w jntian hu li. 2. wmen hu xux. 3. tmen nsh hu q. 4. zhge rn hu xux t. 5. nmen mngtin hu li ma? 6. nsh w b hu li. 7. tmen jntian b hu xux. 8. t mngtin hu kn nde xnx. 9. w nsh hu xux nde xnx.



1. I will come today. 2. We will study. 3. They will come at that point in time. 4. This person will study it. 5. We will come tomorrow, is it so? 6. I will not come at that time. 7. They will not study today. 8. He will read your message tomorrow. 9. I will study your message at that time.



1. wmen xux le. 2. nmen q le. 3. n li le. 4. n mi li. 5. t zutin xux [yng] zhge fngf le. 6. t zutin zhge l q le. 7. nmen rnshi tmen le. 8. w xux ptnghu le. 9. tmen q dhu le. 10. tmen mi rnshi nmen. 11. w rnshi zhge rn le. 12. w mi rnshi nge rn. 13. w zutin kn nde xnx le. 14. t jntin xux tmende xnx le.



1. We studied. 2. YOU came. 3. You came. 4. You did not come. 5. Yesterday he studied [‘use’, ‘using’] in this manner. 6. He went yesterday this way. 7. YOU knew them. 8. I studied Mandarin. 9. They went to the meeting. 10. They did not know YOU. 11. I knew this person. 12. I did not know that person. 13. I read your message yesterday. 14. He studied their message today.



1. yge rn. 2. ybn sh. 3. nbn sh. 4. tmen gi w nbn sh le. 5. t b gi w zhbn sh. 6. wmen mngtin hu gi n ybn sh. 7. tmende dhu hn ho le. 8. gi zhbn sh. 9. n nde sh. 10. tmen n nde sh le. 11. wmen mi n nde sh. 12. wmen mi n wmende sh. 13. yge fngzi. (See also another measure word for buildings in Study 24: ‘zu’; hence ‘yzu fngzi’.) 14. t shu zh[g] *. 15. zhbn sh shu yge ho xnx.


* Note: ‘ge’ or ‘g’ can be added here, if we want to focus on ‘this particular thing’ rather than ‘this situation in general’: if this syllable needs to be emphasized, use ‘g’.




1. a person. 2. a book. 3. that book. 4. They gave me that book. 5. He doesn't give me this book. 6. We will give you this book tomorrow. 8. Give this book. 9. Take your book. 10. They took your book. 11. We didn't take your book. 12. We didn't take our book. 13. a house. 14. He says this. 15. This book tells a fine message.




1. n b shu t. 2. n shu n[g*] le. 3. tmen mi shu zh[g*]. 4. wmen hu n wmende sh. 5. nmen b hu n nbn sh ma? 6. w b shu ptnghu. 7. nge rn shu ptnghu. 8. nge fngzi hn ho. 9. n b gi w wde sh.


* Note: See the note at Exercise 14.1 about ‘ge’ and ‘g’.


1. You don't say it. 2. You said that. 3. They didn't hear this. 4. We will take our book. 5. We won't take that book, will we? 6. I don't speak Mandarin. 7. That person speaks Mandarin. 8. That house [is] very good. 9. You don't give me my books.



1. yosh wmen q nr, tmen [ji] hu li zhl. 2. yosh n b q nr, tmen b hu li zhl. 3. jir tmen b ho, wmen hu xux b hu xux? 4. rgu nbn sh sh ho sh, w hu xux t. 5. jir w sh n, w xux nbn sh. 6. jir nmen xux wmende sh, nmen zhdao wntde df? 7. yoshi nmen kn wmende sh, nmen ji hu zhdao shde xnx.



1. If (in the case that) we do go there, [then] they will come here. 2. If (in the case that) you do not go there, [then] they will not come here. 3. If (supposing) they are not well, we will not study, eh? 4. If (on the condition that) that book is a good book, I will study it. 5. If (supposing) I were you, I'd study that book. 6. If (supposing) YOU study our book, YOU will know the answers to (‘of’) the questions. 7. If YOU read our book, then YOU will know its message.




1. t h w sh ho pngyou, dnsh wmen b rnshi nxi rn. 2. t li zhl, nsh wmen q dhu. 3. wmen b rnshi zhge rn, dnsh wmen rnshi nge rn. 4. t zutin mi li, dnsh t mngtin [hu] li. 5. t huzh zutin huzh jntin lile, dnsh w zhdao t jntin zi zhr . 6. gi t tde sh, brn n b hu sh tde pngyou! 7. w q w pngyou de fngzi, hish tmen li zhr. 8. xux zhbn sh, nsh n hu zhdao wmende l. 9. t n nbn sh le, [ ]* tmen gi t nde pngyou le. 10. w zhdao nmende sh h tde xnx. 11. w kn tde sh le nsh w xux tde xnx.

* Note that ‘and’ is not translated when it is used to connect two clauses each with its own verb.


1. He and I are good friends, but we don't know those people. 2. He comes here, and we go to the meeting. 3. We don't know this person, but we know that person. 4. He didn't come yesterday, but he will come tomorrow. 5. He came either yesterday or today, but we know [that] he's here today! 6. Give him his book, otherwise you won't be his friend! 7. I go to my friend's house, or [alternatively] they come here. 8. Study this book, and then you will know our way. 9. He took that book, [and] they gave it to your friend. 10. I know YOUR book and its message. 11. I read his book, and then I learned its message.



1. n mi xux sh, ync n b zhdao df. 2. w mi xux wde sh, yunyn sh w mi zhdao n jntin hu li. 3. ynwi wde pngyou b ho, suy w jntin b hu q nde fngzi. 4. tmen mi zhdao w hu zi zhl. 5. w b zhdao shfu t mngtin hu ho. 6. yu fngzi zi zhr dnsh mi yu fngzizi nr; ync wmen zhdao tmende fngzi b sh zi nr. 7. w mi kn sh, ync w b zhdao shde xnx.



1. You did not study the book, therefore you don't know the answers. 2. I did not know [that] you would (will) come today, for this reaon I did not study my book. [I did not study my book; the reason is, I did not know you would come today.] 3. As my friend is not well, [so] I will not go to your house today. 4. They did not know [that] I would (will) be here. 5. I do not know whether he will be well tomorrow. 6. There are houses here, but there aren't houses there; so we know [that] their houses aren't there. 7. I didn't read the book, so I don't know the book's message.



1. wde pngyou mi zi nr. 2. wmen mi rnshi zhge rn. 3. zhr yu sh, dnsh nde sh b zi zhl. 4. n zhdao ma, zhge l sh ho b ho? 5. zhge l sh huzh ho huzh b ho! 6. yu wnt h df. 7. zhr sh wmende wnt h tmende df. 8. w hu gi n wmende wnt, nsh n qng gi w nde df. 9. w hu gi wnt, nsh w hu n nmende df. 10. xixie nn!



1. My friend was not there. 2. We did not know this person. 3. Here there are books, but your book is not here. 4. You know, is it so, this way is good or not good? 5. This way is either good or bad! 6. There are questions and answers. 7. Here are our questions and their answers. 8. I will give you our questions, and then you, please, give me your answers. 9. I will give the questions, and then I will take YOUR answers. 10. Thank you! (polite form)



1. wde pngyou b rnshi nde mma r t rnshi nde bba. 2. wmen nsh mi rnshi nge rn, r wmen xinzi rnshi t. 3. tmen lile zhl r nl. 4. wmen hu li r d nde sh. 5. tde pngyou d r xux yge ho xnx.



1. My friend does not know your mother, but he knows your father. 2. We did not know that person at that time, but we know him now. 3. They came here but not there. 4. We shall come and read your book. 5. His friend reads and learns a good message.



1. zhbn sh sh shnme? 2. nge pngyou sh shi? 3. shi rnshi zhge rn? 4. nmende df sh shnme? 5. shi yu wnt? 6. n zhdao shi gile n nbn sh? 7. n wishnme nge fngf shule? 8. n zhdao ma tmen wishnme mi li? 9. t shnme shhou qle tde fngzi? 10. wde sh zi nr?



1. What is this book? 2. Who is that friend? 3. Who knows this person? 4. What is YOUR answer? 5. Who has questions? 6. You know who gave you that book? 7. Why did you speak in that manner? 8. Do you know why they did not come? 9. When did he go to his house? 10. Where is my book?



1. n zhdao b zhdao tmende fngzi zi nl? 2. n q nr? 3. nmen shnme shhou hu li wmende dhu? 4. n shnme shhou hu gi w nde df? 5. nbn shde xnx sh shnme? 6. shi gi shde xnx? 7. w b zhdao w shnme shhou hu q nr.



1. Do you know or not where their house [is]? 2. Where are you going? 3. When will YOU come to our meeting? 4. When will you give me your answer? 5. What is the message of that book? 6. Who gave the book's message? 7. I don't know when I will go there.



1. n znme zhdao n[g*]? 2. w znme q nde fngzi? 3. n du rnshi nge rn? 4. tmen xux zhbn sh du shn le? 5. zhr yu dusho sh? 6. dusho rn q dhu le? 7. t sh shi de bba?


* Note: See the note at Exercise 14.1 about ‘ge’ and ‘g’.


1. How do you know that? 2. How will (= do) I come to your house? 3. To what extent do you know that person? 4. To what extent did they study this book? 5. Here are how many books? 6. How many people went to the meeting? 7. Whose father is he?




1. shi de mma gi n nxi sh le? 2. nge rn sh nde pngyou de bba? 3. tmen zhdao b zhdao shi de mma lile? 4. wmen jntin hu xux dusho? 5. tmen du shn zhdao dhu de l? 6. nbn sh shu nge xnx? 7. t znyng rnshi n? 8. n znyng gi t zhxi df?



1. Whose mother gave you those books? 2. Which person is your friend's father? 3. Do they know or not whose mother came? 4. How much will we study today? 5. To what extent do they know the way to (of) the meeting? 6. Which book said that message? 7. How (=in what manner) does he know you? 8. How did you give him this answer?




1. sh de fngzi 2. xux de sh 3. xux de dhu 4. dhu de l 5. l de sh 6. dhu de fngzi 7. sh de xnx. 8. xux de fngf



1. house of books 2. study book 3. study meeting 4. way of (to) the meeting 5. book of the way 6. meeting house 7. message of the book. 8. way of study



1. wde fngzi 2. pngyou de bba 3. n bba 4. shi de mma? 5. t mma 6. nmende sh 7. w mma de fngzi 8. zhben sh sh shi de? 9. zhge fngzi sh tmende. 10. t b zhdao nde fngzi. 11. w b rnshi n bba. 12. tmende pngyou zutin mi rnshi n mma dnsh tmen jntin rnshi t ynwi w jntin shule t sh shi. 13. t bba kn t mma de xnx le.



1. my house 2. the friends' father 3. your father 4. Whose mother? 5. Her mother 6. YOUR books 7. my mother's house 8. This book is whose? 9. This house is theirs. 10. He doesn't know your house. 11. I don't know your father. 12. Their friends did not know your mother yesterday, but they know her today, because today I said who she is. 13. his mother's message



1. ho [de] dhu 2. hn ho de pngyou 3. b ho de fngsh (or fngf).



1. good meeting 2. very good friend 3. not a good manner



1. ho de sh wde sh. 2. w zhdao nxi sh dnsh w b xux b ho de 3. wmen xux hn ho de.



1. The good one is my book. 2. I know those books, but I do not study bad ones. 3. We study very good ones.



1. zh sh shdang fangf 2. tmen shdang de xux. 3. shdang de shu! 4. t kn hn shdang de.



1. This is the proper manner 2. They study properly (in a proper manner). 3. Speak properly! 4. He reads very accurately.



1. t jntin xux de hn ho. 2. T zu de hn ho. 3. tmen shu de b ho. 4. nmen shu de shdang. 5. w qle dhu de. 6. t sh mi li de. 7. n zutin kn le ho de. 8. t sh mi kn tde sh de! 9. t sh b kn tde sh de!



1. He studied very well today. 2. He makes [things] very well. 3. They speak (or spoke) badly. 4. YOU speak properly. 5. I went to the meeting! 6. He did not come! 7. You read this well yesterday. 8. He has not read his book! 9. He does not read his book!




1. wmen q nr de zhdao. 2. T zu de do nge dngxi. 3. tmen shu de xux. 4. zhbn sh gi wmen zh de do.



1. We could get to know [how] to go there. 2. He is capable of doing (= could manage to do) that thing. 3. They could learn to speak. 4. This book could give us this (= is capable of giving us this).


* Note: For the negative form, ‘couldn't’, replace ‘de’ with ‘b’.


1. zhbn sh sh n gile w de. 2. nge l sh wmen q dhu de. 3. zh b sh w xux de sh. 4. n zhdao b zhdao w q wde fngzi de l? 5. zh b sh n bba kn de xnx.



1. This book is what (=the one that) you gave me. 2. That way is [the one] that we go to the meeting. 3. This was not the book [the one] that we study. 4. Do you know or not the way [the one] that I go to my house? 5. This is not the message [the one] that your father read.



1. n sh xux ho de rn. 2. zhge rn sh zu hn ho de dngxi de pngyou. 3. wde n rnshi de pngyou mngtin hu li zhr. 4. gi w nbn sh le de pngyou zutin lile. 5. zhxi b xux de rn mi li le. 6. shi zhdao nle wde sh de rn? 7. w rnshi qle nr de rn. 8. tmen sh w rnshi de rn. 9. tmen sh rnshi w de rn.



1. That is a person who studies well. 2. This person is a friend who does very good things. 3. My friend whom you know will come here tomorrow. 4. The friend [the one] who gave me that book came yesterday. 5. These people [the ones] that do not study did not come. 6. Who knows [the one] who took my book? 7. I know (=am acquainted with) the one who went there. 8. They are the people whom I know. 9. They are the people who know me.



1. w b zhdao t mi q dhu de yunyn. 2. qng gi w n b xuxle de yunyn. 3. zh b sh t shu n de yunyn. 4. shnme sh nmen mi yu nxi sh de yunyn?



1. I don't know [the reason] why he didn't go to the meeting. 2. Please give me [the reason] why you didn't study. 3. This was not why he said that. 4. What is the reason why YOU do not have those books?



1. n zhdao ma t shnme shhou xux? 2. mngtin hu sh tmen li de. 3. nge rn sh shnme shhou q de? 4. zutin sh wmen li de.



1. Do you know when he studies? 2. Tomorrow is when they will come. 3. When did that person go? 4. Yesterday is when we came (= the time of our coming).



1. nge fngzi sh w q de fngzi*. 2. tmen qle wmen xux nl de fngzi. 3. tmen zutin qle wmen mngtin hu xux de fngzi. 4. n zhdao b zhdao wde sh zi nr de dfang*?

* Note that it is preferable to insert a word like ‘fngzi’, ‘dfang’, ‘dngxi’, or similar to make clearer the aspect being specified — ‘house’, ‘place’, ‘thing’, etc.


1. That house is [the house] where I [will] go. 2. They went to the house where we study [there]. 3. They went yesterday to the house where we will study tomorrow [there]. 4. Do you know or not know [the place] where my book is [there]?



1. qng gosu w n q dhu de l. 2. tmen lile tmen q nde fngzi de l. 3. w li dhu de [l] sh hn ho de l. 4. shnme sh n li wde fngzi de l.



1. Please tell me how (= the road or way that) you go to the meeting. 2. They came how (= the road or way that) they go to your house. 3. [How (= the way)] I come to the meetings is a very good way. 4. How do you come to my house? (=What is the way that you come to my house?)



1. n zhdao ma w xux de fngf? 2. n zhnme rnshi T de? 3. shnme sh n rnshi w de fngf? 4. t shuhu de fngf b sh hn ho de. 5. t shuhu de fngf mi sh ho de.



1. Do you know how (=the manner or way that) I study? 2. You know Him how? 3. What is the way how you know me? 4. How he speaks is not very nice. 5. How he spoke was not nice.



1. n sh [y g] w jntin q tde fngzi de pngyou. 2. n sh t mma lile de rn. 3. zh sh bba tde fngzi hn ho.



1. That is the [‘very’] friend whose house I am going to today (= of whom I'm going to his house today. 2. You are the person whose mother came. (= of whom his mother came.) 3. This is the father whose house is very nice. (= This is the father [ ] his house is very nice.)



1. zh sh t gi de sh. 2. n sh t n de sh. 3. tmen sh w zhdao de fngzi. 4. w b zhdao de df sh zhxi. 5. nxi b sh nmen zhdao le de wnt. 6. zhge dhu b sh w bba zhdao de. 7. w hu xux q nr de l.



1. This is the book [the one which] he gave. 2. That is the book [the one which] he took. 3. They are the houses [the ones which] I know 4. The answers [the ones which] I don't know are these. 5. Those are not the questions [the ones which] YOU knew. 6. This house is not [the one] which my father knows. 7. I shall study the way [which] goes there.



1. t gn w shuhu. 2. t mi gn n shuhu. 3. w mngtin [hu] gn t shuhu. 4. wmen hu b t gi n.* 5. tmen lgu zhge fngzi. 6. nge rn lgu wmende fngzi le. 7. tmen tnggu zhbn sh xux le. 8. zhge pngyou fng t bba de mng shu [or: ‘zh’] le. 9. n cng jntin de dhu xux le shnme ho dngxi? 10. t cng nmende fngzi [ch] lile. 11. t cng Zhnggu li. 12. w cng nbn sh xux tde xnx.

(Note that ‘b’ is a device used to let you state the indirect object ‘t’ before the direct object ‘n’, and still make it clear what is happening to what or whom. Normally, in Chinese the direct object is stated before the indirect object.)



1. He spoke with (=to) me. 2. He didn't speak with (= to) you. 3. I'll speak with him tomorrow. 4. We'll give it to you. 5. They go by way of this house. 6. That person came through our house. 7. They learned through this book. 8. This friend spoke [or: ‘managed’] in the name of his father. 9. What good thing did you learn from today's meeting? 10. He came [out] from YOUR house. 11. He comes from China. 12. I learned his message from that book.



1. zhge dngxi sh gi n mma. 2. t nle zhg dngxi gi tde pngyou. 3. t wile jntin de dhu [r*] li(le). 4. w hu t n bba b† nde sh gi tmen. 5. tmen yuy yge dhu jntin mi li.

(* Note that ‘r’ can be used here to connect the cause of an action with the action itself.

See the note at Exercise 19.1 about the use of ‘b’)



1. This thing is for your mother. 2. He took this for his friend. 3. He came for today's meeting. 4. I will give them your book on behalf of your father. 5. They didn't come today due to a meeting.



1. zi yge fngzi l 2. zi nbn sh lmian 3. zi wde l shang



1. in a house 2. inside that book 3. on my road



1. wmende dhu hu sh zi tde fngzi l. 2. shdang de wnt zi zhbn sh l. 3. n mma mi zi nde fngzi lmian. 4. tde sh zi l shang. 5. w jntin hu zi tmende fngzi mian. 6. nmende pngyou de sh zi nge fngzi.



1. Our meeting will be in his house. 2. Suitable questions are in this book. 3. Your mother was not inside your house. 4. Their books are upon the road. 5. I shall be at their house today. 6. YOUR friends' books are located in that house.



1. zi nge fngzi shngmian 2. zi wde sh ximian 3. zi n bba de fngzi lmian 4. zi dhu wibian 5. zi nde pngyou qinmian 6. zi tmen mma humian 7. zi tde pngyou pngbian 8. zi wmende dhu jn



1. on that house 2. under my book 3. inside your father's house 4. outside the meeting 5. in front of your friend 6. behind their mother 7. beside his friend 8. near our meeting



1. nge rn zi nde fngzi shngmian 2. nde sh zi wde xnx ximian. 3. jntin de dhu hu zi wde fngzi lmian. 4. zutin de dhu zi wde fngzi wibian le. 5. nmnde pngyou zi nxi rn qinmian qle. 6. n bba zi n mma humian li le. 7. w bba zi n bba pngbian. 8. tmen li jn le [ ] shu "n ho ma?" 9. zhge jn fngzi sh w bba de. 9. w mma de fngzi sh zi nde fngzi fjn.



1. That person is on top of your house. 2. Your message is under my book. 3. Today's meeting will be inside my house. 4. Yesterday's meeting was outside their house. 5. YOUR friend went ahead of those people. 6. Your father came behind your mother. 7. My father is beside your father. 8. They came near [and] said, "How are you?" 9. This close house is my father's. 10. My mother's house is near your house.



1. zi yng ybn sh 2. gn n bba 3. miyu ho pngyou 4. zi zutin yqin 5. zi wmende dhu qjin 6. zi mngtin yhu 7. cng nsh yli 8. do l 9. do tmende fngzi 10. guny zhbn sh.



1. with (=by the use of) a book 2. with your father 3. without good friends 4. before yesterday 5. during our meeting 6. after tomorrow 7. since that time (= from that time on) 8. until the road 9. until their house 10. about this book



1. w zi ybn sh yng zhdao t. 2. nmen hu zi wmende dhu yng rnshi tmen. 3. w zi wmende dhu rnshi nge rn. 4. t zi yng nbn sh zhdao zhge dngxi. 5. tmen h nmen bba q le. 6. n bba miyu n mma li le. 7. tmende pngyou q le zi tmen li yqin. 8 wmen hu q zi n li yhu. 9. cng w kn nde xnx yli w zhdao zhxe wntde df.



1. I know it with [the use of] a book. 2. YOU will know them by means of the meetings. 3. I knew that person at our meetings. 4. He knows this thing by means of (=from) that book. 5. They went with YOUR father. 6. Your father came without your mother. 7. Their friend went before they came. 8. We will go after you come. 9. Since I read your message, I know the answers to these questions.



1. t xhuan xux. 2. nmen xwng q. 3. tmen xing li. 4. wmen kwng zhdao.



1. He likes to study. 2. YOU hope to go. 3. They want to come. 4. We wish to know.



1. nmen xhuan xux ma? 2. w bba xwng mngtin li zhr. 3. tmen mma xing zhdao tmen b xux de yunyn. 4. n kwng rnshi wde pngyou ma? 5. t xing q tmende fngzi. 6. wmen kwng gi nmen yge ho wnt. 7. n mma wi n bba xwng n zh. 8. wmen xhuan q wmende dhu. 9. w xwng kn nge xnx.



1. Do YOU like to study? 2. My father would like to come here tomorrow. 3. Their mother wants to know the reason why they did not study. 4. Do you wish to know my friend? 5. He wants to go to their house. 6. We wish to give YOU a good question. 7. Your mother would like to take this for your father. 8. We like to go to our meeting. 9. I would like to read that message.



1. w xyo rnshi nde pngyou. 2. xyo dhu zi nr. 3. tmen bx li zhr. 4. wmen ydng yo q dhu. 5. t bba gn t mma ynggi shu.



1. I need to know your friend. 2. It is necessary that the meeting be there. 3. They must (= are obligated to) come here. 4. We must (=have a necessity to) go to the meeting. 5. His father should speak to his mother.



1. t xyo yu ho df. 2. xyo sh zi zhr. 3. xyo tmende l hu zi zhr. 4. wmen bx li dhu. 5. nmen bx q zi nge l shang. 6. tmen ydng yo jntin gi wmen nxi sh. 7. n ynggi shu w t. 8. wmen xyo kn nde xnx. 9. tmen ynggi kn zhge xnx.



1. He needs to have good answers. 2. It is necessary that the book be here. 3. It is necessary that their road be here. 4. We must (= are obligated to) come to meetings. 5. YOU must (= need to) go on that road. 6. They have a necessity to give us those books tomorrow. 7. You should tell me that. 8. We need to read your message. 9. They should read this message.



1. w jntin hu knng kn nde xnx. 2. n mngtin b ky q tmende fngzi. 3. sh, w nng kn nde xnx le. 4. tmen mngtin do li wmende dhu. 5. w xwng nng kn zhge xnx.



1. I will have an opportunity to read your message today. 2. You are not permitted to go to their house tomorrow. 3. Yes, I was able to read your message. 4. They have a possibility of coming (=may be able) to our meeting. 5. I would like to be able to read this message.



1. w mngtin jnl kn nde sh. 2. t lt le li zhr, dnsh t mi nng li. 3. wde pngyou sh kn n ho de. 4. zhge rn hu shyng nde xuxde fngsh. 5. tmen rng w q tmende fngzi. 6. rng w shu! 7. gi w d zhg! 8. gi t q!




1. I [will] endeavour to read your book tomorrow. 2. He tried to come here, but he wasn't able to come. 3. My friend can read it well. (= is in the situation of reading it well.) 4. This person will try out your study method. 5. They let me go to their house. 6. Let me speak! 7. Let me read that. 8. Let him go!




1. w i tmen. 2. tmen i w. 3. w nng kn yge xnx. 4. mngtin jin! 5. tmen yu wnt ma? 6. n knjian tmende fngzi ma? 7. tmen li xi zi nr? 8. t xing li xi zi zhr. 9. zh knng sh zhn de.



1. I love them. 2. They love me. 3. I can read a message. 4. See [you] tomorrow 5. They have questions, eh? 6. Do you see their house? 7. They stay there? 8. He wants to stay here. 9. This may be true.



1. yge zhn de pngyou hu bng n. 2. w bba zi zhge fngzi zh le. 3. tmen q nr le nsh tmen hu zhr. 4. nmen hu li fngwn wmen ma? 5. nge rn lu xi zi nde dhu ma? 6. wde pngyou q le jinmin t mma. 7. nsh n hu nng zu nde fngzi!




1. A true friend will help you. 2. My father lived in this house. 3. They went there, and then they returned here. 4. YOU will come to visit us, mm? 5. That person stayed at your meeting, eh? 6. My friend went to meet his mother. 7. Then you will be able to make your house!




1. w b nng mngbai tmende xnx. 2. n mngbai nde sh ma? 3. t xwng knjin nde bba. 4. n shnme nng jin? 5. qng nin zhge xnx. 6. wmen ydng yo gi wmen mma xi xn. 7. T i wmen, dnsh wmen i b i T? 8. tmen iho kn shn de sh. 9. nmen yu wmende xnx ma? 10. wmen zhdao znme bx i T. 11. tmen b lt i nxi rn




1. I cannot understand their message. 2. Can you understand your book? 3. He would like to get to see your father. 4. What can you see? 5. Please read aloud this message. 6. We must write a letter to our mother. 7. He loves us, but do we love [or not love] Him? 8. They love to read truthful books. 9. YOU have our message, do you? 10. We know how we must love Him. 11. They don't try to love those people.




1. n b ho ma? b, w hn ho! xixie! 2. n ho ma? shde, w hn ho! xixie! 3. n b ho ma? shde, w b ho! 4. n ho ma? b, w b ho! 5. w mi gi n t.




1. Are you not well? Yes, I'm very well, thank you! 2. You are well, eh? Yes, I am very well! Thanks! 3. You are not well, eh? That's right, I'm not well! 4. You are well, mm? No, I'm not well! 5. I didn't give you it.




1. n nng zu zh ma? — b, w b nng zu t! 2. t b li, du ma? — shde du, t b li. 3. n b li, du ma? — b, w li le!




1. Can you make this? — No, I cannot make it! 2. He did not come, is that right? — That's right; he didn't come. 3. You didn't come, is that right? — That's not right; I did come!




1. bx nin xioxi zi zhge fngzi l! 2. zhxi rn mi yu bba. 3. wde bba b ho; [ ] t b zi zhdao wmen sh shi. 4. w xwng yngyun b sh b ho. 5. tmen mma sh cngli b ho. 6. T cngli mi zu b ho de dngxi. 7. wmen cngli mi knjian nde sh.




1. No reading messages aloud in this house! 2. Those people don't have a father. 3. My father is not well, [and] he no longer knows who we are. 4. I'd like never to be unwell. 5. Their mother is never well. 6. He never does bad things. 7. We never did see your book.




1. zhge dngxi gi wmen ydin ho de yjin. 2. w kn yzhng ho de xnx le. 3. nzhng xnx zi zhzhng zhuzi l. 4. tmen zutin gi w yfn zzh. 5. w knjin nfn zzh zi wde l shang. 6. nmende sh l zi de nf hu gi w yxi wnt. 7. wmen xux npin wnzhng le guny l h fngzi. 8. t q nde dhu yc dnsh w q nr lingc




1. This thing gives us a good reason. 2. I did read a nice message. 3. That message is in this book. 4. Yesterday they gave me a magazine. 5. I saw a magazine on my way. 6. That pic ture in YOUR book gives me some questions. 7. We studied that article about roads and houses. 8. He went to your meeting once, but I went there twice.




1. tmende sh shu guny ling zhng rn. 2. zhxi sh ho h b ho de. 3. w xhuan zhdun sh, dnsh w b mngbai ndun sh. 4. t xhuan xux zi zhzhng zhuzi. 5. wmen knjian zhf hu zi nzu fngzi l. 6. tmen kn le nzhng xnx ybin, dnsh wmen kn t lingbin. 7. nde pngyou de fngzi zi zhdun l shang, [ ] wde zi ndun l shang zi zhzu fngzi fjn. 8. nli dngxi bng w xux shn de yjin. 9. qng nin zhzhng xnx. 10. qng kn nfn zzh.




1. Their book speaks about two types of people. 2. These are good and not good. 3. I like this book, but I don't understand that book. 4. He likes to study at this table. 5. We see this picture in that house. 6. They read that message through once, but we read it through twice. 7. Your friend's house is located on this road, [and] mine is on that road near this house. 8. That type of thing helps us learn truthful ideas. 9. Please read aloud this message. 10. Please read that magazine.