Mandarin Chinese Introductory Language Course (Using Pinyin)

 

In the online (.htm) version of this file Studies 1 to 3 include pronunciation of text linked to audio files.

The file titled Mandarin Chinese Pronunciation Using Pinyin only contains the same material as in these first three studies.
Click on a hyperlink character to hear its sound.
The audio files (.wav) used in this pronunciation course can be
downloaded from www.jaspell.uk/downloadsounds.htm, if needed for use offline.

 

Dictionaries are also available online at www.jaspell.uk

 

The development of versions of this file is described a History below.


LIST OF CONTENTS

Studies

1      Pronunciation of individual and grouped characters

1.1   Individual sounds and their writing in Pinyin

1.2   Pronunciation of special vowel groups and syllables

1.3   Pronunciation of i depending on its context

1.4   Vowel tones and their tone marks in Pinyin

2      Greetings and appreciation, request and thanks; read

3      Presenting a message

4      Personal pronouns I, you, he, she, it; basic sentence construction

4.1   Sentence constructionsubject and predicate

4.2   Sentence constructionconveying a verb for being

4.3   Sentence constructionwith a verb other than for being

5      Plural formation of personal pronouns

6      Who? questioning

7      What? questioning; calling by name

8      sh the verbal word for being, be, am, is, are; yge a, an

9      ma is it so? forms questions from statements; hǎo ma? O.K.?

10   hěn very, indeed

11   b not, forming negative phrases

12   Auxilliary verbs: xiǎng want to; xīwng wish, hope to

13   gěi give; n take

14   Speaking; Indirect and Direct Object pronouns

15   zi again

16   nng, hu, do can, to be able to

17   Close relatives and friends

18   Addition of xiē to form plurals of demonstrative pronouns

19   know; understand; sentence elements with action and object

20   thing, look, see

21   Review of words learned in Studies 1-20

22   de of; s; s possessive case

23   Sentence structure with Direct or Indirect Objects

24   a device for relocating an Indirect Object to achieve emphasis

25   bi by, indicating the doer in a Passive Sentence

26   God; Jehovah; kěyǐ permission; bkě prohibition

27   Measure words more detail; ( + ) = yge a, an

28   de is added after more than one Hanzi character, as in hěn hǎo de rn

29   yǒu, miyǒu having; the Bibles promised blessings

30   q, li, xu, xux go, come, study

31   Places, buildings, meetings

32   hu future actions and times

33   Past actions and times

34   cngli, cngli b, cngli mi ever, never

35   Yes and No

36   Connectives and, but, or

37   More Connectives therefore, because, whether

38   wishnme? yīnwi reasoning why? because

39   yoshi, jiǎr, rguǒ Conditional Sentences if, then

40   [zi] zhr / zhlǐ; nr / nlǐ [located] here, there

41   [zi] zhěr? / zhělǐ; nǎr? / nǎlǐ [located] where?

42   de that which ; hu words; zhngyo important

43   zu [to] do, make; sit; ride; xūyo [to] need [to]

44   yng - manner; fāngfǎ - way; fāngsh - method; l - means, road

45   Measure Words (MW) : běn, and fn. See also Study 28+

46   guāny about; bāngzh help; yng use

47   yoshi , ji If , then : further examples

48   suǒ what, that which; suǒyǒu whatever there is; dōuall

49   Review of Interrogatives who? what? when? where? why?

50   More interrogatives how? how much? whose? which?

51   Try [to]

52   Let; cause to; suffer problem conditions

53   Direction: to, from

54   Direction: through, by way of, in the name of, behalf

55   Purpose, for, due to

56   Position: [located] in, at, on

57   Position: up, down, inside, outside, ahead, behind, beside, near

58   Circumstances: before, with, during, after

59   Auxilliary verbs - desire [to]: like, enjoy, wish, hope, want

60   Auxilliary verbs complusion: need to, must, should, ought to

61   Auxilliary Verbs ability: may, can, try to, let, allow

62   Use of Verbs: help, live, return, visit, stay, meet, do

63   Use of Verbs: see, hear, read, write

64   Use of Verbs: love, understand, have, obtain, receive

65   de and its various uses; Relatives and Correlatives

66   Measure Words (MW)

67   Comparative; zu Superlative; gender

68   Numbers

69   Days, Months, and Dates

70   FREQUENTLY USED WORDS Mandarin Chinese to English

71   FREQUENTLY USED WORDS English to Mandarin Chinese

72   Review of Words Learned

 

APPENDICES

 

A     SENTENCE STRUCTURE

B     CONDUCTING A MEETING IN MANDARIN CHINESE

C     HEBREW-ARAMAIC SCRIPTURES

D     CHRISTIAN GREEK SCRIPTURES

 

ASSOCIATED PUBLICATIONS (at www.jaspell.uk/learn_mandarin_language.htm )

 

i     PRONUNCIATION (WITH AUDIO FILES)

ii    EXERCISES

iii   INCREMENTAL PHRASE METHOD

iv   DICTIONARY MANDARIN CHINESE TO ENGLISH

v    DICTIONARY ENGLISH TO MANDARIN CHINESE

 

OTHER INFORMATION

 

History of this file

 


 

STUDY 1

Pronunciation of individual and groups of characters

 

PRONUNCIATION 1.1 (Individual Sounds and Their Writing in Pinyin)

 

Pinyin script provides an approximate method for representing the pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese using Roman characters with accents. Some letters are pronounced as in English, but others have very different sounds (as highlighted in the following chart). Pronunciation also varies in different regions of China, but the following guidance is generally acceptable.


 

INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS

Letters

Pronounciation

Position

 a 

a as in father, atone

 

 b 

b as in bag

 

 c 

ts as in bats

 

 ch 

tsh as in hatshop

 

 d 

d as in dog

 

 e 

e as in her

generally

 e 

e as in yes, yeah

after y

 f 

f as in fun

 

 g 

g hard as in get

(not soft as ingel)

 h 

ch gutturally as in loch

 

 i 

i as in sir, circle, chirp

after c, ch, r, s, sh, z, zh

 i 

ee as in been;

i as in bistro

after b, d, j, l, m, n, p, q, t, x, y

 j 

j as in jam

 

 k 

k as in kitchen

 

 l 

l as in love

 

 m 

m as in mug

 

 n 

n as in nibble

 

 o 

o as in or

 

 p 

p as in pun

 

 q 

chh as in matchhead

 

 r 

r rolled as in curl

 

 s 

s as in sat

 

 sh 

sh as in rashly

 

 t 

t as in top

 

 u 

u as in boot

(See group below)

 w 

w as in water

 

 wu 

oo as in pool

not wu

 x 

s as in see;

hs as in aah, see!

 

 y 

y as in yam

 

 yi 

ee as in been

yi is i, not yi

 z 

ds as in suds

 

 zh 

dge as in hedgeless

 

 

See also the table below about groups of vowels and syllables.

 

PRACTICE 1.1 (Pronunciation of Characters in Simple Syllables)

 

Read: ba, ca, cha, da, e, ye, er, fa, ga, ha, yi, bi, ci, ju, ka, la, ma, na, bo, pa, qu, re, sa, sha, ta, wu, bu, wa, xi, ya, yi, za, zha

 

Repeat

 

PRONUNCIATION 1.2 (Pronunciation of Special Vowel Groups)

 

See the following table titled: Some Special Vowel Groups and Syllables.

Some groups are marked with an asterisk, *. The following comments apply to these.

If the vowel group starting in i occurs on its own, it needs to be written beginning with y instead of i. So, ian would be written as yan.

Similarly, a group on its own starting in u is written using a w instead of the u. So, uan is written as wan.

Some sound groups are easier recognizable for an English speaker: aisle; ban; bang; naos (sounding like now); eight; tiara; ring.

 


 

SOME SPECIAL VOWEL GROUPS AND SYLLABLES


Group

 

 

Sounds like

en

 

 

urn or undo

eng

 

 

Bung

 i  (in ci, chi, ri, si, shi, zi, zhi)

 

 

shirt (without r), zircon, adze

 i  (in bi, di, fi, ji, li, mi, ni, qi, ti, xi, yi)

 

 

been, deed, jeep, tee, see, eel

ia / ya

*

 

yarn, try a bit

ian / yan

*

 

yen, try any

iang / yang

*

 

Young

iao / yao

*

 

Yowl

ie / ye

*

 

the air; ee-ye

iong / yong

*

 

Jung (German)

iu / you

*

 

Yoyo

 o 

 

 

fore, door

ong (after d, t, n, l, z, c, s, zh, ch, r, g, k, h)

 

 

jung (German); long

ou

 

 

Dough

u / wu

*

 

shoe, gnu, do

 u  (in l, n ) / yu

*

 

chew your food

 u  (in ju, qu, xu) / yu

*

 

chew your food

ua / wa

*

 

Wax

uai / wai

*

 

Wide

uan / wan

*

 

Won

uan (after j, q, x) / yuan

*

 

-yen; new end; innuendo

uang / wang

*

 

Wangle

ue (in le, ne) / yue

*

 

-ye, new energy

ue (in jue, que, xue) / yue

*

 

-ye, new energy

(uei) / ui / wei

*

 

Weigh

un (after d, t, n, l, z, c, s, zh, ch, sh, r, g, k, h) / wen

 

 

won, dun

(ueng) / weng

*

 

Swung

un (in jun, qun, xun) / yun

*

 

unique; German

uo / wo

 

 

Wall

 


PRACTICE 1.2 (Pronunciation of Special Vowel Groups and Syllables)

 

With the help of the table (of special vowel groups and syllables) given above please read these syllables:

 

Read:

en, ben, beng, ci, bi, ya, jia, lia, yian, dian, dianr, yang, liang, yao, biao, jiao, ye, bie, jie, xie, yong, jiong, xiong, you, miu, jiu, o

 

Repeat

 

Read:

bo, dong, rong, zhong, wu, bu, yu, n, l, ju, qu, wa, zhua, hua, wai, guai, wan, duan, juan, quan, xuan, wang, huang, chuang, yue

 

Repeat

 

Read:

le, ne, jue, xue, wei, dui, zui, wen, dun, hun, yun, jun, xun, wo, duo, shuo, huo, huor .

 

Repeat

 


PRONUNCIATION 1.3 (Pronunciation of i Depending on Its Context)

 

The vowel i may occur after some, but not all consonants. If the sound of the letter i occurs on its own, the sound is represented by yi.

 

The letter i can be pronounced in two different ways, depending on which sort of consonant it occurs with. It is easier to remember which is right, if you register where in your mouth the first group is pronounced.

 

Note: c, ch, r, s, sh, z, and zh are a family of sounds. They are all pronounced in the roof of the mouth towards the front of the palate with the help of different amounts of pressure from the tongue. With r the tongue barely touches the palate, whereas with zh the tongue is folded back there somewhat painfully.

 

WAYS TO PRONOUNCE I / i

 

 

 

 

 ci 

*

what sir did

bi

Been

 chi 

*

what churns around

di

Deed

 ri 

*

never irksome

ji

Jeep

 si 

*

sir

li

Leek

 shi 

*

shirt

mi

Meek

 zi 

*

zircon

ni

Need

 zhi 

*

adjourn

pi

Peek

 

 

 

qi

Cheek

 

 

 

ti

Tee

 

 

 

xi

aah, see!

 

 

 

yi

eel

Repeat

 

 

Repeat

 

 

* If this i occurs with characters in the group in left hand column, but it occurs without a tonal mark especially at the tail end of a word it tends to be restrained. (Compare the end of English words like sire, shire, adze, badge, etc., in which the final vowel e is almost lost.) For example, this applies to shi, but not to sh, sh, sh, or sh.

 


PRACTICE 1.3 (Varying Pronunciation of i)

 

With the help of the table given above please read these syllables:

 

 

Read: bi, ci, chi, di, ji, li, mi, ni, pi, qi, ri, si, shi, ti, xi, yi, zi, zhi.

 

Repeat

 


PRONUNCIATION 1.4 (Vowel Tones and Their Tone Marks in Pinyin)

 

Mandarin is pronounced with tones. These are indicated in Pinyin script by tone marks.

 

Mandarin

Tone

Pinyin

Tone mark

Description of Tone

Example

First tone

 ā

highest and level pitch

(mother)

Second tone

 

starts high and rises

mfan (trouble)

Third tone

 ǎ

falls first and then rises

(horse)

Fourth tone

 

starts high and then falls

m (scold)

(Toneless)

a
(No mark)

unstressed or neutral

ma (eh, surely!)

 

 

 

Repeat

 

NOTE 1

When a third tone (ˇ ) precedes another third tone, pronounce it as a second tone (ˊ). Hence hěn hǎo is pronounced hn hǎo. Similarly, hǎo is pronounced more like n hǎo.

 

NOTE 2

Some words like b change before a fourth tone syllable (ˋ), such as m, or before a toneless syllable, such as ma: b changes to b in this context.

 


PRACTICE 1.4 (Pronunciation of Vowel Tones)

 

Read the following verses (from Galatians 5:22-23).

 

Lng y fāngmin,

shnglng de guǒsh

yǒu

ixīn,

xǐl,

hpng,

On the other hand,

the fruitage of the spirit

is / have

love,

joy,

peace,

 

 

 

 

 

 

jiānrěn,

rnc,

lingshn,

xnxīn,

wēnh,

zzh.

long-suffering,

kindness,

goodness,

faith,

mildness,

self-control.

 

Lng y fāngmin , shnglng de guǒsh yǒu ixīn, xǐl, hpng, jiānrěn, rnc, lingshn, xnxīn, wēnh, zzh.

 

PRACTICE 1.5 (Pronunciation of Vowel Tones)

 

Read:

 

Qǐng d zhge hǎo xiāoxi.

Please read this good news.

Wǒ xīwng gěi nǐ zhge tbi qǐngtiě.

I'd like to give you this special invitation.

Xīwng hěn kui jindo nǐ!

See you soon! (Like very quickly get to see you.)

Zh nǐ zǎo r kāngf!

Get well soon!

 


DIALOGUE 1.1 (Pronunciation of Vowel Tones)

 

Read this dialogue as two persons, A and B:

 

 A 

Zǎoshng hǎo

Good morning

 B 

Zǎoshng hǎo.

Good morning

 A 

Hěn gāoxng jindo n

Nice to see you.

 B 

Wǒ yě hěn gāoxng jindo nǐ.

Nice to see you too.

 A 

Wǒ jio X. Nǐ jio shnme mngzi?

I'm called X. What name are you called?

 B 

Wǒ jio X.

I'm called X.

 A 

Wǒmen xīwng xiǎngyǒu hpng de shēngmng, kěsh yǒu duō knnan.

We'd like to enjoy a life of peace, but we have much difficulty.

 B 

Du!

Correct!

 A 

Wǒ xīwng gěi nǐ zhfn qǐngtiě.

I'd like to give you this invitation.

 B 

Wishnme?

For what?

 A 

Měi Xīngqīyī yǒu pǔtnghu yng de tǎoln.

Each Monday there's a discussion using Mandarin.

 B 

Tǎoln de hut sh shnme?

What is the topic?

 A 

Wǒmen xux Shngd de yyn. Tā shuō le Tā hu zěnyng bāngzh yrn.

We study God's prophecy. He said how He will help righteous ones.

 B 

Zi nǎr?

Where?

 A 

Wǒ nng li rng nǐ dāch.

I can come and give you a lift by car.

 B 

Xixie. Kěsh wǒ nng zǒul.

Thanks. However, I can go on foot.

 


DIALOGUE 1.2 (Pronunciation of Vowel Tones)

 

Read this dialogue as two persons, A and B:

 

 A 

Nǐ xiǎng d zhge hǎo xiāoxi ma?

Would you like to read this good news?

 B 

Hǎode

OK

 A 

Nǐ du zhge hut gǎn xngq ma?

Are you interested in this topic?

 B 

Wǒ yǒu xngq liǎojiě. Kěsh gu yīhuǐr.

I'm interested in understanding. But later.

 A 

Zh sh wǒde dinhu homǎ.

Zh sh wǒde yīmir dzhǐ.

This is my telephone number.

This is my email address.

 B 

Xixie.

Thanks.

 A 

Nǐ nng gos wǒ nde dinhu homǎ h dzhǐ ma?

Could you tell me your telephone number and address?

 B 

Hǎode. Gěi nǐ.

OK. Here you are.

 A 

Mngtiān Yngwn yng de tǎoln hu sh:

Shngd du nǐ hěn zhngsh ma?

Tomorrow the topic in English will be:

Does God count you as important?

 


 

STUDY 2

Greetings and appreciation; read

 

VOCABULARY 2.1 (Greetings, Request and Thanks)

 

Huānyng! *

Welcome!

Nǐ hǎo!

Hello! Hi! Howdy! How do you do!

pǔtōnghu

Mandarin

 

 

Qǐng

Please!

d

[to] read

Xixie!

Thanks!

Xixie nn!

Thank you! (polite form)

 

* See guidance on Mandarin pronunciation and Pinyin script.

Check especially h in Pronunciation 1.1.

Check especially q, and x in Pronunciation 1.1.

Check tones and tonal marks in Pronunciation 1.4.

Remember, when a third tone (ˇ) precedes another third tone, pronounce it as a second tone (ˊ). So, nǐ hǎo is pronounced more like n hǎo.

ˉˊˇˋ

 

PRACTICE 2.1 (Greetings and Appreciation)

 

Nǐ hǎo!

Hi!

qǐng

Please

Qǐng d

Please read.

Xixie

Thanks!

pǔtōnghu

Mandarin

Huānyng

Welcome!

 


 

STUDY 3

Presenting a message; style awareness

 

VOCABULARY 3.1 (Messages)

 

zh; zhi

this (some person or thing here)

zhge

this (particular)

n

that (some person or thing there)

nge

that (particular)

hǎo

well, good fine

xiāoxi

news

xnxī

information, message

qǐngtiě

invitation

 

(Remember, h in hǎo is pronounced raspingly, like ch in Scottish loch)

(Pronounce zh in zh like dge in hedgeless. Curl back the tongue.)

 

GRAMMAR 3.1 (Style Awareness)

 

You may be able to discern subtle differences in how a word feels according to context. Observe in the following example that zh would feel too vague and general, so its good to add -ge to make the object in the sentence more specific.

 

The examples provided at the start of this course try to make meaningful sentences, but with only a few words learned at this stage, it is almost unavoidable that some of them lack some of the finer style you can achieve with a wider choice of words.

 

Qǐng d zh[ge].

Please read this [item].

 


INCREMENTAL CONSTRUCTION 3.1 (Messages)

 

Learn the following method or constructing a sentence incrementally.

 

Nǐ hǎo!

Hi!

Qǐng d

Please read.

xiāoxi

news

hǎo xiāoxi

good news

zhge xiāoxi

this news

zhge hǎo xiāoxi

this good news

d zhge hǎo xiāoxi

Read this good news

Qǐng d zhge hǎo xiāoxi!

Please read this good news!

 

INCREMENTAL CONSTRUCTION 3.2 (Messages)

 

Nǐ hǎo!

Hi!

Qǐng d

Please read.

qǐngtiě

invitation

hǎo qǐngtiě

good invitation

zhge qǐngtiě

this invitation

zhge hǎo qǐngtiě

this nice invitation

d zhge hǎo qǐngtiě

read this nice invitation

Qǐng d zhge hǎo qǐngtiě!

Please read this nice invitation!

Xixie!

Thanks!

Xixie nn!

Thank you! (polite form)

 


 

REVIEW 3.1

 

Greetings! / Hello! /

How are you?

nǐ hǎo! [- h is pronounced like ch in loch]

 

 

Please!

qǐng! [- q is lpronounced ike ch in chicken]

Read!

d!

Please read !

qǐng d !

 

 

information

xnxī

this [a word used in place of a person or thing]

zh [- zh is pronounced like dge in fudge]

this particular

zhge - g is like g in get

this information

zhge xnxī

Please read this message.

Qǐng d zhge xnxī.

 

 

Please read this invitation.

Qǐng d zhge qǐngtiě.

 

 

Thanks!

Xixie!

Thank you! (polite form)

Xixie nn!

 


 

STUDY 4

Personal pronouns and basic sentence construction

 

VOCABULARY 4.1 (Personal Pronouns)

 

I

you

he, she, it

 

ACTIVITY 4.1

 

{Suggested Instructions for Group Instructor: Clap, repeat prompt: Juanita. Get all to stand, pointing to oneself, to the adjacent person, or to another person further away.}

 

Imagine Juanita dancing to lively music played on stringed instruments.

1. Do the following activity.

 

    wǒ    point to self (= 1st. person)

     nǐ     point to partner (= 2nd. person)

     tā     point to another (= 3rd. person)

 

2. Repeat singing and clapping.

3. Repeat gesturing without singing.

4. Repeat singing and clapping.

5. Repeat singing and gesturing.}

 


 

GRAMMAR 4.1 (Sentence Construction Subject and Predicate)

 

Observe in the following examples how a sentence is made up of a Subject and its Predicate. The Subject is, in effect, the doer of an action. The action is conveyed by a doing word, a verb. This action may or may not affect an object. For further examples of sentence construction see Study 19.

 

 

GRAMMAR 4.2 (Sentence Construction Conveying a Verb for Being)

 

In this first example, the action word, or verb, conveys the thought of being. In some languages, as with Mandarin Chinese, the verb word indicating being can be omitted. Each of these sentences is simple, only having one clause, and this is a Main Clause. In each of these simple Main Clauses there are a subject (doer) and an adjective describing the doer.

 

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

 

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

DOER

ACTION

 

 

DOER

ACTION

 

[ ]

hǎo.

 

I

[am]

fine.

[ ]

hǎo.

 

You

[are]

fine.

[ ]

hǎo.

 

He, she or it

[is]

fine.

 

 

GRAMMAR 4.3 (Sentence Construction With a Verb Not for Being)

 

In these second examples, the action word, or verb, conveys the thought of reading. In one set the verb does not have an object. The other does.

 

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

 

SUBJECT

PREDICATE

DOER

ACTION

OBJECT

 

DOER

ACTION

OBJECT

d.

 

 

I

read.

 

d.

 

 

You

read.

 

d.

 

 

He, she or it

reads.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d

tā.

 

I

read

it.

d

tā.

 

You

read

it.

d

tā.

 

He, she or it

reads

it.

 


 

ROUTINE 4.1

 

Form a variety of sentences using one choice from each of the three elements.

 

1

2

3

 

 

 

Qǐng

 

 

d

 

zhge xiāoxi

 

EXERCISE 4.1 (See Answers below.)

 

Translate into English:-

1. He reads.

2. Please read.

3. Please read it.

4. Please read this news.

5. I read it.

 

ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 4.1

 

 

EXERCISE

ANSWER

1.

He reads.

Ta d.

2.

Please read.

Qǐng d.

3.

Please read it.

Qǐng d tā.

4.

Please read this news.

Qǐng d zhge xiāoxi.

5.

I read it.

Wǒ d tā.

 


 

EXERCISE 4.2 (See Answers below.)

 

Translate into Mandarin:-

1. Nǐ d.

2. Qǐng d tā.

3. Tā d zhge xiāoxi

 

ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 4.2

 

(Practise these until you know them well.)

 

 

EXERCISE

ANSWER

1.

Nǐ d.

You read

2.

Qǐng d tā.

Please read it.

3.

Tā d zhge xiāoxi.

He reads this news.

 


 

STUDY 5

Plural formation of personal pronouns

 

VOCABULARY 5.1 (Plural Construction)

 

men

s (plural ending for persons )

 

GRAMMAR 5.1

 

The plural of words for personal pronouns and nouns for animate groupings is made by appending men. This is similar to the appending of s in English.

 

Wǒmen

 

I

We

Nǐmen

 

You

YOU

Tāmen

 

He, she, it

They

 

EXAMPLES 5.1

 

Wǒ hǎo.

I [am] fine.

Nǐ d.

You read.

Wǒmen hǎo.

We [are] fine.

Nǐmen d.

YOU read.

 


ROUTINE 5.1

 

Form a variety of sentences using one choice from each of the three elements.

 

Wǒmen

Nǐmen

Tāmen

 

d

 

zhge xiāoxi

 

hǎo

 

PRACTICE 5.1

 

{Suggested Instructions for Group Instructor: Students split into groups of three}

 

Exchange statements using:-

wǒ, n, tā, wǒmen, nǐmen, tāmen, hǎo, d, zhge xiāoxi.

 


 

STUDY 6

Who? - questioning

 

VOCABULARY 6.1

 

shi?

who?

 

GRAMMAR 6.1

 

Shi [ ] hǎo? *

Who [is] well?

Shi d tā?

Who reads it?

Shi d zhge qǐngtiě?

Who reads this invitation?

* Note that the verb word indicating being has been omitted again.

 

ROUTINE 6.1

 

Create questions (wnt) and answers (hud) from the two elements.

 

Q

 

Shi

d?

 

hǎo?

 

Q

 

Who

reads?

 

is well?

A

Wǒmen

Nǐmen

Tāmen

 

d

 

 

hǎo

 

A

I

You

He, she, it

We

YOU

They

 

read

 

 

am/is/are well

 

ACTIVITY 6.1

 

{Suggested Instructions for Group Instructor: Students split into groups of three.}

 

Exchange statements using:-

wǒ, n, tā, wǒmen, nǐmen, tāmen, shi, hǎo, xiāoxi, qǐngtiě, d.

 


 

STUDY 7

What? questioning; calling by name

 

VOCABULARY 7.1

 

shnme?

what?

jio

[to] call by a name; [to] be called by a name

mngzi; mng

name

 

GRAMMAR 7.1

 

Wǒ jio Alan.

I'm called Alan.

Nǐ jio shnme mingzi?

What name are you called?

Nǐ jio Bill.

You are called Bill.

Tā jio Colin.

He is called Colin.

Tāmen jio shnme mngzi?

What is their name?

 

GRAMMAR 7.2

 

Nǐ d shnme?

What are you reading?

Tā d shnme xiāoxi?

He is reading what news?

Shnme hǎo xiāoxi?

What good news?

Shnme xiāoxi [ ] hǎo? *

What news [is] good?

* Note that the verb word indicating being has been omitted again.

 

ACTIVITY 7.1

 

{Suggested Instructions for Group Instructor: Students split into groups of two or three.}

 

Act out roles of two persons. Exchange names. Exchange questions and statements using:-

wǒ, n, tā, wǒmen, nǐmen, tāmen, shnme, etc.]

 

Wǒmen

Nǐmen

Tāmen

 

 

d

 

shnme?

 

hǎo xiāoxi!

 


 

STUDY 8

sh the verbal word for being, be, am, is, are; yge a, an

 

VOCABULARY 8.1

 

sh

[to] be; am, are, is, be

yge *

a, an (indefinite article )

* yge is, in effect, a combination of yī (meaning one) and gē. This gē is a measure word and the most common one, because you can get away with using it generally. Later you will learn other measure words that are specific to particular nouns. (See Study 27.)

 

GRAMMAR 8.1

 

Nǐmen sh shi?

Who are YOU?

Tā sh shnme?

What is it?

Zh sh yge qǐngtiě.

This is an invitation.

 

ACTIVITY 8.1

 

{Suggested Instructions for Group Instructor: Students split into groups of two or three.}

 

Act out roles of two persons. Exchange questions and statements using one choice from each of the three sentence elements.

 

Wǒmen

Nǐmen

Tāmen

 

 

sh

shi?

Ann

Bill

Colin

 

*

 

* Here you could also say: Yēhhu Jinzhngrn : Jehovah's Witness(es), for example.

 


DIALOGUE 8.1

 

Read this dialogue as two persons, A and B:

 

A

N sh shnme?

What is that?

B

N sh yge qǐngtiě!

Thats an invitation!

A

Zh sh shnme qǐngtiě?

What invitation is this?

B

Zhge xnxī sh hǎo xiāoxi!

This message is good news?

B

Qǐng d nge qǐngtiě.

Please read that invitation.

A

Xixie.

Thanks.

B

Xixie nn!

Thank you. (polite form)

 

EXERCISE 8.1

 

Translate into English:-

 

1.

N sh shnme?

 

2.

Nǐmen sh shi?

 

3.

N sh shnme xnxī?

 

4.

Nge xiāoxi sh shnme?

 

5.

Zh sh yge xnxī.

 

 

ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 8.1

 

(Practise these until you know them well.)

 

 

EXERCISE

ANSWER

1.

N sh shnme?

What is that?

2.

Nǐmen sh shi?

Who are YOU?

3.

N sh shnme xnxī?

What message is that?

4.

Nge xiāoxi sh shnme?

What is that news?

5.

Zh sh yge xnxī.

This is a message.

 


EXERCISE 8.2

 

Translate into Mandarin:-

 

1.

This invitation is good news.

 

2.

That is an invitation?

 

3.

Please read that invitation.

 

4.

What message?

 

5.

That message.

 

6.

What message is it?

 

 

ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 8.2

 

(Practise these until you know them well.)

 

 

EXERCISE

ANSWER

1.

This invitation is good news.

Zhge qǐngtiě sh hǎo xiāoxi.

2.

That is an invitation?

N sh yge qǐngtiě?

3.

Please read that invitation.

Qǐng d nge qǐngtiě.

4.

What message?

Shnme xnxī?

5.

That message.

Nge xnxī.

6.

What message is it?

Tā sh shnme xnxī?

 


 

STUDY 9

ma is it so? to form a question from a statement; hǎo ma? O.K.?

 

VOCABULARY 9.1

 

ma?

mm, eh, surely, is it so?

hǎo ma?

, O.K.? (, is it good with you?)

 

NOTE: ma? is added to a sentence to convert it from a statement to a question.

 

EXAMPLES 9.1

 

Wǒ hǎo ma?

How am I? I'm O.K., eh?

Am I well?

Nǐ hǎo ma? *

You're O.K., mm? How are you? *

Nǐ d tā ma?

Do you read this?

Zhge xiāoxi hǎo ma?

Is this news good?

 

 

Qǐng d zhge qǐngtiě, hǎo ma?

Would you read this invitation?

(Please read this invitation, O.K.?

 

* Note that this is asking how you are and differs from Nǐ hǎo.

 

PRACTICE 9.1

 

Convert these questions into plain statements.

 

Wǒ hǎo ma?

How am I? I'm O.K., eh?

Nǐ hǎo ma?

You're O.K., mm? How are you?

Tā hǎo ma?

Is it O.K.? It's fine, mm? He's well?

Wǒmen hǎo ma?

How are we? We're O.K., surely?

Nǐmen hǎo ma?

How are you? YOU're fine, eh?

Tāmen hǎo ma?

How are they? They're O.K., mm?

 


PRACTICE 9.2

 

Convert these statements into questions by using ma?

 

 

Wǒ hǎo.

I'm O.K.

Nǐ hǎo.

You're O.K.

Tā hǎo.

It's fine. / He's well

Wǒmen hǎo.

We're O.K.

Nǐmen hǎo.

YOU're fine.

Tāmen hǎo.

They're O.K.

 

PRACTICE 9.3

 

Convert these statements from singular person to plural person.

 

Wǒ hǎo.

I'm O.K.

Nǐ hǎo.

You're O.K.

Tā hǎo.

It's fine. / He's well

 

PRACTICE 9.4

 

Convert these questions from plural person to singular person.

 

Wǒmen hǎo ma?

How are we? We're O.K., surely?

Nǐmen hǎo ma?

How are you? YOU're fine, eh?

Tāmen hǎo ma?

How are they? They're O.K., mm?

 


PRACTICE 9.5

 

Converse using questions (wnt) and answers (hud).

 

 

QUESTIONS

 

ANSWERS

1.

Wǒ hǎo ma?

1.

Nǐ hǎo!

2.

Nǐ hǎo ma?

2.

Wǒ hǎo!

3.

Tā hǎo ma?

3.

Tā hǎo!

4.

Wǒmen hǎo ma?

4.

Nǐmen hǎo!

5.

Nǐmen hǎo ma?

5.

Wǒmen hǎo!

6.

Tāmen hǎo ma?

6.

Tāmen hǎo!

 

REVIEW 9.1

 

well, good

hǎo

I

I [am] well

Wǒ [ ] hǎo

you

You [are] well.

Nǐ [ ] hǎo

he, she, it

He [is] well.

Tā [ ] hǎo

we

wǒmen

We [are] well.

Wǒmen [ ] hǎo

YOU

nǐmen

YOU [are] well.

Nǐmen [ ] hǎo

they

tāmen

They [are] well.

Tāmen [ ] hǎo

, is it so?

ma?

I [am] well, is it so?

wǒ [ ] hǎo ma?

You [are] well, are you?

Nǐ [ ] hǎo ma?

 


 

STUDY 10

hěn very, indeed

 

VOCABULARY 10.1

 

hěn

very, is very, is indeed

 

GRAMMAR 10.1

 

Wǒ hěn hǎo! *

I sure [am] fine! I['m] very well.

Wǒ b hǎo.

I [am] not well.

Wǒ b hěn hǎo. *

I [am] not very well.

 

* Remember, when a third tone () precedes another third tone, pronounce it as a second tone (). Hence hěn hǎo is pronounced like hn hǎo.

 

ROUTINE 10.1

 

{Suggested Instructions for Group Instructor: Students split into groups of two or three.}

 

Exchange names. Converse using questions (wnt) and answers (hud)

 

 

Wǒ hǎo ma?

 

Nǐ hěn hǎo!

 

Nǐ hǎo ma?

 

Wǒ hǎo.

 

Tā hǎo ma?

 

Tā hěn hǎo!

 

Nǐmen hǎo ma?

 

Wǒmen hěn hǎo!

 

Tāmen hǎo ma?

 

Tāmen b hǎo!

 


 

STUDY 11

b not, forming negative phrases

 

VOCABULARY 11.1

 

b (b before a fourth tone syllable    or before a toneless syllable)

not, not want to, No

 

GRAMMAR 11.1

 

Wǒ hěn hǎo!

I sure [am] fine! I [am] very well.

Wǒ b hǎo.

I [am] not well.

Wǒ b hěn hǎo.

I [am] not very well.

 

Remember, when a third tone () precedes another third tone, pronounce it as a second tone (). Hence hěn hǎo is pronounced like hn hǎo.

 

ROUTINE 11.1

 

{Suggested Instructions for Group Instructor: Students split into groups of two or three.}

 

Converse using questions (wnt) and answers (hud).

 

1.

Wǒ hǎo ma?

1.

Nǐ hěn hǎo!

2.

Nǐ hǎo ma?

2.

Wǒ b hǎo.

3.

Tā hǎo ma?

3.

Tā hěn hǎo!

4.

Wǒmen hǎo ma?

4.

Nǐmen b hǎo!

5.

Nǐmen hǎo ma?

5.

Wǒmen hěn hǎo!

6.

Tāmen hǎo ma?

6.

Tāmen b hǎo!

7.

Tāmen hǎo ma?

7.

Tāmen b hěn hǎo!

 


EXERCISE 11.1 (See Answers below.)

 

Translate the following examples into English:-

 

1.

Wǒmen hǎo ma?

 

2.

Nǐmen b hǎo!

 

3.

Tā hǎo ma?

 

4.

Tāmen b hěn hǎo!

 

5.

Wǒmen hěn hǎo!

 

6.

Tāmen b hǎo.

 

7.

Tāmen hǎo ma?

 

 

ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 11.1

 

Practise these, if you need to.

 

 

EXERCISE

ANSWER

1.

Wǒmen hǎo ma?

Are we O.K.?

2.

Nǐmen b hǎo!

YOU are not well!

3.

Tā hǎo ma?

Is he well?

4.

Tāmen b hěn hǎo!

They are not very well!

5.

Wǒmen hěn hǎo!

We are very well!

6.

Tāmen b hǎo.

They are not O.K.

7.

Tāmen hǎo ma?

Are they alright?

 


EXERCISE 11.2 (See Answers below.)

 

Translate the following examples into Mandarin Chinese:-

 

1.

You are very fine!

 

2.

Im not O.K.

 

3.

Its great!

 

4.

How are you?

 

5.

How are YOU?

 

 

ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 11.2

 

These translations are quite flexible, loosely mixing the words O.K., fine, great, well, etc. Practise these, if you need to.

 

 

EXERCISE

ANSWER

1.

You are very fine!

Nǐ hěn hǎo!

2.

Im not O.K.

Wǒ b hǎo.

3.

Its great!

Tā hěn hǎo!

4.

How are you?

Nǐ hǎo ma?

5.

How are YOU?

Nǐmen hǎo ma?